A Multimodal Interactional Classroom Coding System (MICCS, 2022)

In Progress

EPIC-Lang Pedagogical Grants 2022 (PI: Professor Hongyin Tao / CoPIs: Ph.D students Dayoung Jeong & Cheer Wu)

Sample teaching videos: 02_us_502105_us_4249

Inclusive education in CSL classrooms


Our team has recently published a special issue in the International Journal of Chinese Language Education!

Hongyin Tao, Liz Carter, Helen Wan, Yan Zhou(2021)Special issue on Inclusive education in CSL classrooms. International Journal of Chinese Language Education, 9.

Special issues

Tao, H. (Ed.)  (2006). Special issue on Chinese. Heritage Language Journal, 4(1).

Hongyin Tao, UCLA, Guest Editor’s Foreword (pages i-ii)
Heather Weger-Guntharp, Georgetown University: Voices from the Margin: Developing a Profile of Chinese Heritage Language Learners in the FL Classroom (pages 29-46)

Agnes Weiyun He, State University of New York-Stony Brook: Toward an Identity Theory of the Development of Chinese as a Heritage Language (pages 1-28)

Yun Xiao, University of Massachusetts at Amherst: Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background (pages 47-56)

Reviewed by Michelle Fu, UCLA: Book Review: Masterworks Chinese Companion: Expressive Literacy through Reading and Composition. (2004). Qin-Hong Anderson (Compiler). Boston: Cheng & Tsui. 194 pp. (pages 57-61)


He, A. W., & Xiao, Y. (Eds.). (2008). Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry (Vol. 2). Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, National Foreign Language Resource Center.

Thirty-two scholars examine the socio-cultural, cognitive-linguistic, and educational-institutional trajectories along which Chinese as a Heritage Language may be acquired, maintained and developed. They draw upon developmental psychology, functional linguistics, linguistic and cultural anthropology, discourse analysis, orthography analysis, reading research, second language acquisition, and bilingualism. This volume aims to lay a foundation for theories, models, and master scripts to be discussed, debated, and developed, and to stimulate research and enhance teaching both within and beyond Chinese language education.

View/download the table of contents.

Ruan, J., Zhang, J., & B.,  Leung C. (Eds.). (2016). Chinese language education in the United States. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 

This book offers historical, philosophical, and sociocultural perspectives on Chinese language education for speakers of other languages with a special focus on Chinese language education in the United States. It provides a comprehensive, cross-disciplinary look at changes in CFL/CSL education over time in China and the U.S. and the philosophical, political, and sociocultural influences that led to these changes. The essays address a wide array of topics related to Chinese language education, including:  

• A historical overview of the field
• Theories that apply to CFL/CSL learning
• Policies and initiatives for CFL/CSL by the Chinese and U.S. governments
• Medium of instruction
• Curriculum and instruction for CFL/CSL learners at K-12 and college levels
• Technology for CFL/CSL education
• Chinese language learning for heritage learners
• CFL in study abroad contexts
• CFL teacher education and training

This work is essential reading for scholars and students interested in gaining a greater understanding of Chinese language education in the two countries and around the world.

Journal articles

Gong, Y., Lyu, B., & Gao, X. (2018). Research on Teaching Chinese as a Second or Foreign Language in and Outside Mainland China: A Bibliometric Analysis. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 27(4), 277–289.

Han, Y. (2010). Chinese as a heritage language: fostering rooted world citizenry. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(5), 670–673.

Ji, Chongmin & Duffield, Stacy & J. Wageman, Justin & Welch, Anita. (2017). “Student perceptions of the classroom learning environment and motivation to learn Chinese.” Chinese as a Second Language, 52(2), 111-126.

Ke, C., & Li, Y. H. A. (2011). Chinese as a foreign language in the US. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 39(1), 177-238.

Li, D., & Duff, P. (2008). Issues in Chinese heritage language education and research at the postsecondary level. In Agnes He and Yun XIao (eds.), Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering Rooted World Citizenry, 13–32. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, National Foreign Language Resource Center.

Li, Y., Wen, X., & Xie, T. (2014). CLTA 2012 Survey of College-Level Chinese Language Programs in North America. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 49(1), 1–49.

Luo, H., Li, Y., & Li, M. Y. (2019). Heritage language education in the United States: A national survey of college-level Chinese language programs. Foreign Language Annals, 52(1), 101–120.

Mao, W. (2019). Leveraging Diversity in Community College Foreign Language Instruction. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 19(3), 68–78.

Pasfield-Neofitou, S., Grant, S., & Huang, H. (2016). Exploring Innovative Pedagogy in the Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Foreign Language. In Exploring Innovative Pedagogy in the Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Foreign Language, (Vol. 15).

Tsu, J. B. (1970). The Teaching of Chinese in Colleges and Schools of the United States. The Modern Language Journal, 54(8), 562–578.

Wang, Wenxia and Kuo Nai-cheng. (2016). “Chinese language teachers’ instructional contexts, knowledge, and challenges in teaching students with special needs.” Chinese as a Second Language, 51(2) 138–163.

Wang, Danping & Martin East. (2020). “Constructing an emergency Chinese curriculum during the pandemic: a New Zealand experience.”  International Journal of Chinese Language Teaching, 1(1).

Zhou, Ying. (2014). “Understanding Language Anxiety and Ways to Alleviate it in Mandarin Classrooms.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 49(3), 49-63.

Inclusive pedagogy in general

Journal articles

Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall. (2005). Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies, 7:4-5, 585-614.

Coady, M.R., Harper, C., & De Jong, EJ. (2016). Aiming for equity: preparing mainstream teachers for inclusion or inclusive classrooms? TESOL Quarterly, 50 (2), 340-368.

Forest, M., & Pearpoint, J. (1992). Common sense tools: MAPS and circles for inclusive education. Network, 2(2), 26-35.

Hockings, C. (2010). “Inclusive learning and teaching in higher education: A synthesis of research.” York: Higher Education Academy.

Joy, R. & Murphy, E. (2012). The inclusion of children with special education needs in an intensive French as a second-language program: from theory to practice. Canadian Journal of Education, 35 (1), 102-119. 

López, F., & Iribarren, J. (2012). Creating and sustaining inclusive instructional settings for English language learners: why, what, and how. Theory Into Practice, 53 (2), 106-114.

Rojas Tejada, A.J., Cruz del Pino, R.M., Tatar, M., & Sayáns, P.J. (2012). “Spanish as a foreign language” teachers’ profiles: inclusive beliefs, teachers’ perceptions of student outcomes in the TCLA program, burnout, and experience. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27 (3), 285-298.

This survey and evaluation of Spanish teachers’ attitudes and approaches to teaching examines different variables at play, including their beliefs about inclusion and the role of the teacher in the classroom.

Spencer, S.A. (2011). Universal design for learning: assistance for teachers in today’s inclusive classrooms. Interdisciplinary Journal of Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 10-22.

Spencer introduces the basic principles of UDL and its applications in the classroom, with particular attention to instructional planning.

Burgstahler. S. (2015). “Universal Design in higher education.” In S. Burgstahler (ed.), Universal Design in higher education: From principles to practice (2nd ed.), 65 – 80. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

This edited volume presents a number of empirical studies on inclusion, in which the results of various pedagogical interventions are measured and evaluated.

Minaya-Rowe, L. (2002). Teacher training and effective pedagogy in the context of student diversity. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

This edited volume approaches the task of training teachers for diverse classrooms in three key areas: specific training practices, school or system wide reform to training programs, and models for teacher training.

Schieffelin, Bambi B. & Ochs, Elinor (1987). Language Socialization across Cultures. Volume 3 of Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

This volume explains the way that language acquisition is linked to the development of different world views, and the implications of these differences for language learners of different backgrounds.

Tobin, T.J., & Behling, K.T. (2018). Reach Everyone, Teach Everyone: Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Tobin and Behling offer a wealth of practical suggestions for instructors and administrators about how to adapt their curriculum and lesson plans to make learning more accessible for all students.
Conference proceedings

Ugel, N. (2018). Using a Co-teaching Model in Teacher Training to Foster Cultural Awareness and Inclusiveness.  Paper presented at the 2018 STARTALK Fall Conference, Houston, TX.

The characteristics and advantages of different co-teaching strategies for fostering student success in diverse contexts are explored.